Keith Hunt - G.G.RUPERT was before HWA Restitution of All

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G.G.RUPERT was before Herbert Armstrong

TRUTH has always been here!


The late Richard Nickels (who founded GIVING AND SHARING)
probably researched more Church of God history than anyone before
or after him.
This is just one of his finds in the annals of Church of God
history - Keith Hunt

G.G. RUPERT'S REMNANT OF ISRAEL     Church History Paper No.5

"Is there a true organization?" Is there a true Church? This was
the title of the lead article of the April 1919 issue of "The
Remnant of Israel."

"To the above we certainly say yes," the article began. "There is
also a true church. As to this organization and church, man has
had nothing whatever to do in shaping it in any way ... All man
has ever had to do with it was to accept it as it was made by the
Lord himself. This church is perfectly organized even to detail
governing the actions of all its members. Its appointed seasons
of worship are all appointed. The ministry with all other gifts
needed in its government and service is all provided for. The
mind that guides this organization and service is divine. It
needs no constitution, or by-laws, that are not given in the
Bible. It has no committees to nominate its officers or plan for
its finances. The same laws that governed Adam and Eve govern
each member today.  It has but one head and that is,   Christ...
It is called 'the Church of God.'  ... Man cannot add one single
member to the church. God does that." And as for its ministers,
the article concluded, God chooses them.      

History and Purpose of Remnant of Israel

     The Remnant of Israel began in April 1915, published at
Britton, Oklahoma, by the Union Publishing Company, later moving
to nearby Oklahoma City, The managing editor and founder was G.
G. Rupert.
     Its purpose was clearly stated in the original issue: "There
is no paper in print which meets the present demands of God's
word, to now give the people the whole truth..."
     The paper's purpose was to teach "many doctrines of the
Bible heretofore entirely neglected, or if taught at all....
taught unscripturally...... Some of these neglected doctrines
were: (1) the identity of the true Israel of the Bible, (2)
prophecies of the yellow races (including Russia) to overrun and
devastate our land, (3) that the law of Moses was NOT nailed to
the cross, which others falsely teach, and (4) that ancient Bible
prophecies referring to such peoples as Ephraim, Judah, and
Assyria, have never been fulfilled and will be fulfilled in our

The life of G.G.Rupert

     Rupert - Born in Ohio, May 12, 1847, G.G. Rupert died July
17, 1922 at the age of 74. Originally a Methodist, Rupert served
as a Seventh Day Adventist minister for thirty years, including
several years as a missionary in South America. He was president
of the Oklahoma Seventh Day Adventist Conference (covering five
states, including Oklahoma) at the time he left the Adventists.
He must have left them at or before 1902, because he stated in
1925 that from 1902-1904 he had been connected with no

     G.G.Rupert preached all over the United States. Nearly blind
for 28 years, he miraculously regained sight of one eye ten years
before his death. His wife died in 1921. His only son, H. W.
Rupert, was born in 1871 and died in 1925.

     Seventh Day Adventist leader Ellen G. White died in 1915,
the same year the Remnant began. Rupert had known her personally
for nearly forty years,  and for many years believed in her
visions. When he later compared them with the Bible, Rupert
rejected Seventh Day Adventism. Still he eulogized her as a
"sincere, honest servant of God," whose life was commendable to
all Christians. What finally led to the open break with the
Adventists was Rupert's publishing books contrary to the Seventh
Day Adventist teaching. He had friction with them for three to
five years before he left them. 

     Disagreement between Rupert and Seventh Day Adventists is
reported in the November 1915 Remnant. Adventist Elder J. H.
Morrison at College View, Nebraska, wrote a booklet "A Straight
Talk to Old Brethren" against the teachings of Elders Jones and
Rupert. Rupert retorts, "I hold that William Miller and all
Seventh Day Adventists were led in false and unscriptural
teaching on prophecy."

     Rupert's most famous book was "The Yellow Peril," a 530 page
work on   prophecy  selling originally for $2.25 in 1911. The
third edition is dated 1918. The book was advertised in the May
27,  1913 Bible Advocate (published by the Church of God, Seventh
Day), possibly the earliest mention of Rupert in that source.
"Yellow Peril" is also advertised in the November 9, 1915 issue.
In the scattered issues of the Advocate available, there are
several articles written by Rupert. For the May 27 and June 3,
1913 issues he wrote a series on "The Book of the Law." The June
10,17, and July 8,15 issues of the same year all contain Rupert
articles on the laws of God, showing how they are not done away.
On page 506 of the June 17, 1913 Bible Advocate is Rupert's
unique chart on "the Laws of God," later reproduced in his own
"Remnant of Israel" of February, 1916.

Kept the Holy Days

     On Rupert's "Laws of God" chart are listed the Ten
Commandments, the statutes, dietetic laws, and the Holy Days.
Passover, Feast of Unleavened Bread, Firstfruits (Pentecost),
Feast of Trumpets, Day of Atonement, and the Feast of Tabernacles
are all listed, along with the 50th year of Jubilee. Rupert not
only held to the name "Church of God," but taught observance of
the Sabbath and all the Bible's laws and Holy Days.

G.G. Rupert's Remnant of Israel, 1915-1929   

An Independent

G.G.Rupert was one of the Independent Church of God (Seventh Day)
leaders, who for reasons of doctrine, refused to go along with
the Stanberry headquarters. In the early 1900's the Church of God
was split between the "regulars" and the "independents". G.G.
Rupert seems to be one of the leading figures among the
independents. Along with the Bible Advocate, Rupert mentions five
other papers, all having some truth, all for the Ten
Commandments, and all Sabbath-keepers (and all, possibly, Church
of God Independents):

The Evangel of Hope 
The Gathering Call T
he Shining Light 
The Mispah 
Religious Liberty

     The reason for so many papers, Rupert states, was there for
liberty which the older organizations had not granted them.

     Rupert's articles in the Advocate are by no means 
surprising. At that time, the Advocate carried articles by people
of many divergent views, and regularly stated that the views
expressed therein were not necessarily representative of the
doctrines nor teachings of the General Conference of the Church
of God. 
     But Rupert was not an "ordinary" writer. His articles in the
Advocate on the Holy Days are amazing. A. N. Dugger, the editor, 
allowed these articles to be printed, if indeed he had the power
of control. Stanberry never accepted the Holy Days, but was given
a convincing presentation of them in 1913 by G.G.Rupert.
     Rupert himself advertised the "Bible Advocate" at least
twice, in the May and November 1915 issues of Remnant. But
possibly the disagreement between him and Stanberry grew because
later he ceased advertising the Advocate and instead wrote
against their form of church organization.

Independent View of Church Organization

     Remnant supporters "do not believe the Bible teaches the
present system [Stanberry Church of God] of church organization.
We held that the true church of the Firstborn of whom Christ is
the manager of each individual but not by man. Neither is it
visible, but that church is made up of the true children of God
whose names are written in heaven. Their faith is whatever the
Bible teaches." Also it was believed that "the Church of God of
the Bible was, is, and always will be, only nondenominational.
Its organization is spiritual and divine, not human."  

     I.C.Sultz, Remnant editor, explained why he refused to join
the Church of God Conference: It was an organization of men, and
therefore of necessity had to have a creed, fixed limits as to
the meaning of certain points in the Bible. "Development" -
understanding new Bible truths -- was impossible, because
"the organization never changes its positions on any subject."
     Stanberry was inflexible, and refused to accept new truth,
especially that regarding God's law and Holy Days and the
identity of modern Israel. This appeared to be the reason for
being of the independent Remnant group.
     In reply to an Advocate article of February 1, 1921
denouncing those against organization as spreading the divisive
work of Satan, Rupert stated that Christ is the only head of His
Church. He asked, "does the thing follow that because man
organized a church and called it the CHURCH OF GOD, that it is
the church of God? Not at all..." Dugger's organization was
called "the Church of God," but the name did not make it so. Its
organization was not the Bible organization. "It is a fraud and
imitation." As quoted in the introduction, Rupert was against
election of church officers and men choosing themselves to be
ministers. Rupert admitted he did not know what the proper
organization should be, but hoped he would soon learn. 

Doctrine and Teachings

     The convincing truth Rupert did hold was astounding. Remnant
of Israel articles, preserved in the New York Public Library, are
fascinating to read, simple and clear, studded with numerous
relevant Bible texts. Here are some of its teachings:


"There is but one true church of God," and all other churches
were said to be in Babylon. Besides the name "Church of God," the
"church of the Firstborn" (Hebrews 12:23) was also emphasized. 

Bible the Authority

The Remnant stood for "the teaching of the whole Bible in one
harmonious unbroken line from the first verse in Genesis to the
last verse in Revelation." 


Man is mortal and the time of probation (deciding for eternal
life or death) was said to be almost over. 

Laws of God and Pagan Holidays

"The facts are there is not a single text in the New Testament
that teaches that any law that God ever gave was abolished and
nailed to the cross..." Only the sacrifices and oblations have
ceased, as stated in Daniel 9:27.  "Sunday .... Easter,     
Christmas, Good Friday, Ash Wednesday, and various days .... are
all of heathen origin and belong to Babylon, the mother of
harlots. The majority of teachers know this, but for various
reasons they will still try to keep the people in ignorance and
support the old system of Babylon." Even worse are true
Sabbath-keepers who say the law of Moses is abolished, contrary
to Malachi 4:4.     

Holy Days Observed

Paul "scrupulously ... observed the Jewish feasts" as stated in
Acts 18:21. The New Testament does not replace the old. With such
beliefs, G.G.Rupert and his followers probably kept every one of
the Holy Days. Dates are given for various years.
     There was some controversy over the keeping of Passover. The
June 1919 Remnant states that Passover should be taken on the
beginning of the 14th of the first Jewish month, Nisan. In the
1928-29 papers, some supported the 14th, others the 15th. Mrs.W.
Moore wrote that Jesus did eat the Passover, and Christians are
also to keep it on the evening of the 14th.
     Pentecost was said to be calculated from the weekly Sabbath
during the Days of Unleavened Bread. But the dates in the Remnant
were on various days of the week, indicating that at one time
Rupert held to a Sivan 6 Pentecost calculation. The September 21,
1921 Remnant, however, stated that Pentecost was always on a
Sunday. It is difficult to determine whether or not Rupert used
the Hebrew Calendar. His holy days seemed to vary.

Meaning of Feast Days

     The meaning of the Fall Holy Days was clearly expressed by
John S.Stanford in the September 1929 issue of the Remnant of
     The "Memorial of Blowing of Trumpets" is a command for us to
observe a "Memorial-Day Sabbath," Leviticus 23:24-26. The
physical blowing of trumpets has ceased, but we are to continue
keeping this memorial. God is a faithful notifier, Amos 3:7. He
will give notice of Christ's Second Appearing, and this day
reminds us to look up these notifications in His word. 
"Atonement" means "At-One-Ment" or "at one mind." We are born
with a carnal mind. We are to have our minds renewed, Romans
12:2, with the same mind of Christ, Philippians 2:5. Christ died
and completed the first step in the Atonement. The second step is
man's part, to accept it. And the third step is to keep up a life
of obedience with Christ's help, not by ourselves, a continuous
process until "final salvation." We are saved by His
life, Romans 5:10, in us, but reconciled by His death. It is
impossible to earn salvation by our own works, only by Christ's
life in us will we be saved. Atonement is a memorial, "by keeping
which we may remember what He has done for us." To afflict the
soul (life) means to fast. Since Christ was afflicted for us, we
afflict ourselves just a little in recognition of what He did for
us. Atonement is a type of a future event at the close of
     The "Feast of Ingathering" is a type of the resurrection of
the just after the close of probation. The Feast of Tabernacles,
another name for this feast, is a type of the same time when the
remnant will again dwell in tabernacles forty years. The Feast of
the Jubilee is a type of the new earth. "These feasts all from
the Passover forward are consecutive in their order, leaving the
ones mentioned still future." That is, the Holy Days reveal the
plan of God in dealing with mankind.

     One Remnant group in Battle Creek, Michigan in 1926 was
keeping all the Feast Days. Those cited were Adolph Schenk and F.
L.Van Sloten. Observation of the "new moons" is not mentioned in
the Laws of God Chart, but a "new moon" (first day of each month
on the Jewish calendar) is mentioned in connection with this same
group, on the Wednesday before Thanksgiving, 1927 [or 1926?] 


     The Sabbath was taught and observed by the Remnant people.
But unlike Seventh Day Adventists, and especially Seventh Day
Baptists, the Sabbath was not talked to death. Discussing
overmuch the Sabbath-Sunday controversy is useless. The shorter
way is to "show the people there was no change when Christ was
here in any way in the whole law written in 'The Book of the
Law'..[and] They will soon give up the case." 

Books and Tracts

     G.G.Rupert published his first book in 1902. The following
list of his books and articles has been gleaned from issues of
the Remnant:

The Yellow Peril (530 pages)
The inspired History of the Nations (3 volumes, 750 pages) 
Time. Tradition and Truth
The Bible Atlas
The Two Covenants, the Old and the New, Between God and Man (65
The Four Great Cycles (36 pages)
Peace or War
The Call of the Ministry and Their Support
The Two Women of the 12th and 17th Chapters of Revelation 
The Story of the Jew and the Remnant of Judah 
Consecutive Events in their Order Following the Close of
The Book of the Law Found Again 
The Gift of Tongues Examined
A Positive Appeal and Challenge to Seventh Day Adventists and
Others to Cease Teaching Error
Is there a True Church Organization?
The Bible Church of God (40 pages by Lloyd Shanklin)
The Inspired Biblical Ecclesiastical
Secular History of the World (by G.G.Rupert, 6 volumes, 2500
Coming Events Cast Their Shadows (by Adolph Schenk)

     Many of these books and articles are available today as
reprints from Johnson Graphics, P.O. Box 317, Decatur, Michigan

Seven Church Eras

     Rupert's ideas on true church history were similar to the
Stanberry Church of God. Stanberry thought that they were
the Laodicean era, while Seventh Day Adventists held that
Adventists were Laodiceans. Rupert believed the "ten days" of
"tribulation" (Revelation 2:10) were the ten year's persecution
of Diocletian, 302-312 A.D., during the Smyrna era. Thyatira, he
states, lasted from 538-1798 [the 1260 years, same as Stanberry
calculates it]. In the "Yellow Peril," Rupert stated that the
Sardis era lasted from 1798-1833, while the Philadelphia Era
lasted only from 1833-1844. Rupert admitted his dates were not
clear breaks, for it is "clear to our mind that more than one of
the last churches live co-temporary and at the same time." This
is a key truth and shows that the church in the last days needs
to be alert and ready for the return of the Messiah. And of his
own group, "Like all other of the churches it is the works that
determine our standing before God." Elsewhere, Rupert hinted that
the Stanberry Church of God was the dead Sardis Era of the true

Other Beliefs

     Tithing is commanded. Christmas is pagan and not to be
observed by Christians. Divine healing by laying on of hands and
prayer or handkerchief was used by Rupert associate Lloyd
Shanklin. Speaking in tongues is in languages that can be
understood. These are additional beliefs held by Rupert and his

     Rupert was against Christians participating in warfare. "I
prefer to lose my life than 'killing someone' under a fit of
enthusiasm or imaginary loyalty." He would kill no one unless
commanded by God. 

     John S.Stanford, a Remnant editor, wrote that it is wrong
for a Christian to vote. 
     Despite letters published in the Remnant seeking to
straighten him out (for example, Dr.T.E.Reed), Rupert persisted
in believing that Christ was crucified on Friday and rose on
Sunday. He maintained that the "heart of the earth" was not the
grave. This belief was at variance with the Church of God
teaching of a Wednesday crucifixion, Saturday resurrection, but
this belief was identical with the Adventist point of view.

     On the top of every issue of the Remnant was a flag symbol
labeled "the Ensign of Israel" with 12 stars, and stripes with
words scarlet, yellow, blue, and purple. This represented the
"Sign of the Son of Man" which Rupert believed to be the rainbow.

The Prophetic "Yellow Peril"

     This writer has read only a little of Rupert's voluminous
works on prophecy. As cited before, Rupert believed the yellow
races (including Russia) would eventually invade and devastate
our land. In October, 1917 he predicted that the Japanese would
eventually menace the United States. Britain was said to be
Tyrus. The King of the North (Turkey) would be the King of the
South (England) against Russia. Ephraim was said to be

     G.G.Rupert's prophecies of a "Yellow Peril" (title of his
famous book) were somewhat prophetic in predicting the coming
menace of Japan even while the Japanese were United States allies
during World War I.

Widespread Ministry

     The scattered issues of the Remnant available do not give a
complete picture of Rupert's work.
     At Choctaw, Oklahoma Rupert lived for eight years, raising
up a church of twenty members. He also lived for a time at
Liberal, Kansas, where he also raised up over twenty. At
Hartland, Kansas, he raised up a church, baptized six and
ordained Elder I.C.Sultz in 1916. Sultz was a convert of Rupert's
about twenty-five years before. Rupert had much opposition to his
teachings at Omega, Oklahoma, baptized five at Britton, and
worked at Dale and McCloud, Oklahoma in 1916-17. 
     In February 1917, Rupert held debates in Oklahoma City with
a Russelite minister, C.P.Whitaker. Three to five hundred people
attended the debates which mainly concerned the laws of God. 
     In the summer of 1918, Rupert visited Sultz at the latter's
home in Maybell, Colorado. Afterwards Rupert spoke at Denver;
Lincoln, Nebraska; Dodge Center, Minnesota; Battle Creek,
Michigan; and Cleveland, Ohio. At College View, Nebraska, he held
meetings at the home of B.Dresselhaus. At Battle Creek, home of
the Adventists, he held lectures for ten days at the home of
Brother Humnel before twenty-five listeners. On this trip Rupert
visited Vanwert, Ohio, where he and his wife began observing the
Sabbath. He had been baptized nearby in 1876, in his home town of
Mendon, Ohio.

Pasadena Conference

     In the spring of 1919, Rupert met other Sabbath-keepers from
all over the United States at a meeting at Pasadena, California.
He stayed at the home of Sister Drury and was assisted in the
meetings by Elder Leland.  The Pasadena meetings continued for
twenty-seven days.
     At Pasadena, the following seemingly prophetic statement was

"The day is not far distant when the work will go in power to
every child of God in the world and call the honest to the truth
for this time ... God has been performing a great work. It now at
last looks like the time was now here for the execution of the   
work ... So now is the time to teach a whole truth to the

     Rupert held seventy consecutive meetings while in
California, nineteen of which were at a colored Free Seventh Day
Adventist church in Los Angeles. The Adventists there became a
part of Rupert's movement, and secured Elder J.Watson of
Washington, D.C. as their pastor.

Rupert's Associates

     Some of those associated with Rupert were:   

(1) Elder Adolph Schenk of Battle Creek, a contributing editor
after December 1921, and mentioned previously as keeping all the
Holy Days:
(2) Elder I.C.Sultz, ordained by Rupert in 1916, lived in
Maybell, Colorado and was a contributing editor beginning
in December, 117
(3) Sister C.P.Drury of Pasadena
(4) Elder Black in Michigan
(5) Elder A.P.Ballenger (died 1921) who was known by Rupert since
the 1880's and preached at the Los Angeles meeting and died soon
6)Elder A. T. Jones (died 1923) who preached with Rupert at
College View and Lincoln, Nebraska in 1914.

     The most prominent associate of Rupert was probably
Evangelist Lloyd Shanklin of Cedar Rapids. Shanklin emphasized
divine healing at his protracted revival "gospel tent" meetings.
He held a successful campaign at El Dorado Springs, Missouri in
1923, where he bought a forty by sixty foot tent for $350. The
Stanberry Church of God people paid for his seats. It is reported
that he healed 5,000 in Kansas City, 100 in Moberly, Missouri,
and 3,000 in Topeka. His meetings were "inter-denominational" and
probably rife with showmanship. At Oklahoma City in December,
1927 his tent burned to the ground at a loss of $3,000. It
appears that in 1923 Shanklin had abandoned his opposition to the
Stanberry organization, and united with them. 

     From the start of the paper, C M.Hayhurst was an early
contributing editor with Rupert. Strangely, he was absent and
unaccounted for beginning with the March 1917 issue of the

     John S.Stanford was a later contributing editor, and wrote a
series of articles on the Holy Days in 1929. He may have
continued Rupert's work.

Remnants of the Remnant Party

     G.G.Rupert died on July 17, 1922. His daughter, Lucille
Rupert Smith, took over as managing editor of the paper. The
Remnant frequently was thereupon filled with old reprint
articles. The last issue in the New York Public Library is dated
November, 1929.

     Stanford apparently took real leadership of the movement,
along with Sultz. The Remnant had failed to issue from June of
1916 until February of 1917, but was revived by a group of nine
persons, each pledging twelve dollars to renew publication. What
happened to the paper after November 1929 is not known. Stanford
and Sultz are not thereafter mentioned in the Advocate, but
Shanklin ceased to be an independent because he felt the work
could be better done through the Stanberry Church of God.

     Others of the independent Church of God people united with
Stanberry. Yet independent ideas remained for some time, and due
to the inflexibility of Stanberry, and internal dissension over
doctrine, the seeds of the split of 1933 had already been sown in
the early 1900's.

     A church in Knox, Indiana, known as the "Church of the
Firstborn," united with Stanberry in 1924 under the leadership of
Elders C.E.Groshans and George W. Barber. The church had been
founded by Elder Willis Logan, and organized in 1889. It was
reported that they kept the annual day of Pentecost, and may have
kept other Feast Days. This group may have been a remnant of
Rupert's influence.

Sultz's "United States in Prophecy" 

     I.C.Sultz, who married Rupert's daughter, lived into the
late 1960's. His book, "The Tragic Story of Gentile Israel," is
(according to Elder Frank Walker, a "British Israelite" believer
connected with the Seventh Day Church of God of Meridian, Idaho)
a condensation of "The Yellow Peril" (written by G.G.Rupert in
1901 in Liberal, Kansas). In modern terms, "Yellow Peril" refers
to the "Russian Menace."

     In his book, Sultz stated that the book of Hosea deals
exclusively with "Gentile Israel" which he defines to have three
divisions: Judah (Greek Catholic); Israel (Roman Catholic); and
Ephraim (Protestantism). Since the United States is the home of
Protestantism, the United States is Ephraim in prophecy. (This
idea has been held to by some sections of the Seventh Day Church
of God.) Thus, the "Gentile" United States will fulfill
prophecies referring to Ephraim.

     Sultz quoted Isaiah 7:8, "In sixty-five years, Ephraim will
be broken that he be not a people," and stated that this prophecy
began to be fulfilled in 1918, and would end with Ephraim's
destruction in 1983. World War III would start in 1980 and last
for three years. The World Council of Churches will unite
Catholics and Protestants and then the Russians will crush them
in a great battle finally culminating at Armageddon. The ten
kings will be headed by a German Communist and will devour Roman
Catholicism (also denoted as Moab).

     Sultz's jumping to conclusions based upon assumed analogies
and identification of nations prophetically with little or no
proof is, unfortunately, a common trait among Bible teachers. The
ridiculous failures of such "prophecy" should teach us to be
careful. We should wait until the Eternal makes prophecy known,
and not jump to personal conclusions.

     I.C.Sultz remained for years an independent Sabbath keeper.
The message of the "watchman on mount Ephraim" (warning message
to the United States, as the modern "Ephraim"), Jeremiah 31:8-7,
Sultz believed, "has been presented to the world as I understand
for a number of years by Mr.[Herbert W.] Armstrong." Yet Sultz
inferred that Armstrong himself might be part of Babylon that he
warned would be destroyed.

Parallels Between G. G. Rupert and H. W. Armstrong

     Remnant of Israel teachings were in many ways strikingly
similar to those advanced some twenty years later by Herbert W.
Armstrong, an ordained minister of the Church of God in Oregon
who later broke with the Seventh Day Church of God to form his
own Worldwide Church of God. Armstrong's beliefs were as much, if
not more, at variance with Church of God (Seventh Day) teachings
than the beliefs of G.G.Rupert.

     Here are some similarities between the teachings of the
Remnant of Israel and the Plain Truth (magazine founded by
Herbert W. Armstrong in 1934):

(1) Both Rupert and Armstrong believed, taught, and practiced
observance of all the Feast Days of the Bible, while the Church
of God (Seventh Day) observed only the Passover (Lord's Supper).

(2) Both were at variance with Stanberry over the issue of the
true Israel of the Bible, and both taught that many prophecies
referring to Ephraim, Judah and Assyria are yet to be fulfilled.
The United States in prophecy was a focal point of both men's
prophetic teachings.
The Church of God (Seventh Day) has since Adventist days, taught
that the Jews constitute all of Israel, and that they must return
to Palestine before Christ returns. They see the return of the
Jews to their national homeland since 1914 as the fulfilling of
prophecies of a "Second Exodus" of Israel, while Armstrong and
Rupert maintained that these prophecies have not been fulfilled
because all Israelites are NOT Jews.

(3) Both Armstrong and Rupert were against election of church
officers and self-appointed ministers. Meanwhile, Stanberry
continued to practice church elections.

(4) Pasadena, California figured Rupert and Armstrong prominently
in the work of both.

(5) Rupert and Armstrong both held that the Church of God
(Seventh Day), headquartered at Stanberry, Missouri, was the
"Sardis" era of the true Church, while Stanberry, believed itself
to be the Laodicean era.

     It is quite likely that Herbert W. Armstrong was familiar
with the teachings of G.G.Rupert during the 1920's and 1930's
when Armstrong was formulating his own beliefs. Church of God
(Seventh Day) leader Andrew N. Dugger was such a student of
Rupert that Dugger made a mistake in his 1920's book, "A History
of the True Religion" referring to the 1860's Church of God
paper, Dugger mistakenly called it "Remnant of Israel" when the
name of the paper was actually "Hope of Israel." Dugger was such
an avid reader of Rupert that he confused the name of the 1880's
Church of God paper with Rupert's contemporary paper! Dugger and
Armstrong were very close associates during Armstrong's early

     In summary, the movements led by G.G.Rupert and Herbert W.
Armstrong have remarkably parallel beliefs. "Holy Day" and
"British Israel" teachings among the Church of God did not
originate with Herbert W. Armstrong in the 1930'5. Such ideas had
been presented to (and rejected by) Church of God leaders in the
early 1900'5 through G.G.Rupert and his Remnant of Israel.
Indeed, there were only a "remnant" in the Church of God that
held to these minority views.

Differences Between Armstrong and Rupert

     It should be noted that there are differences between
Armstrong and Rupert. About 1950, Armstrong abandoned his belief
in local autonomy and established a strong centralized church
government, with himself as the head. Rupert never varied from
his independent view of church government and never established a
permanent church organization like Armstrong did.
     Rupert's prophetic beliefs were very different than those of
Armstrong. Armstrong believed Anglo-Saxon America and the British
Commonwealth are racially descended from Israel, while Rupert
believed they were "Gentile Israel", Gentiles who would fulfil
prophecies such as Hosea, which relate to Israel. For Rupert, the
big threat to modern Israel was the Orient, that is, the
Japanese, Chinese and Russians. For Armstrong, it was a United
Europe led by the Germans.
     Rupert never lived into the age of radio and television.    
His media was mainly books and articles. He was a far more
prolific and scholarly writer than Armstrong, who mainly wrote
short religious articles.
     Mrs.Otis Cole (mother of Raymond Cole and member of Herbert
Armstrong's church from the early 1930'5) says that the Coles did
not know of G.G.Rupert until the late 1940'5, after they had
moved from Fairview, Oklahoma to Oregon. This is ironic, but also
indicates that Rupert's audience was somewhat different than most
of the Church of God, Seventh Day.

Lessons From Rupert

     It has been claimed by some that copies of Rupert's paper,
"Remnant of Israel," were found in later years in Herbert
Armstrong's basement in Pasadena, California. This does not prove
that Armstrong merely lifted many of his beliefs from Rupert.    
Even if he did, this does not validate or invalidate these
doctrines. It is sad how some who are against the truth of God
use a supposed Rupert-Armstrong doctrinal tie to "prove".
these doctrines are erroneous. Actually, discovering someone
prior to Armstrong who held similar views lends credence to these

     When the veil of history is totally lifted by the Almighty, 
we will probably all be surprised to know just how the Eternal
preserved His truth through scattered individuals throughout the
ages, who rarely were aware of the existence of others.     

     Elijah thought he was the only one, when God informed him
there were 7,000 men, unknown to Elijah, who had not bowed the
knee to Baal. Even today there must be a "Remnant of Israel" who
follow the Almighty and compose His "little flock", I Kings
19:18, Romans 11:4-5.

---written by Richard C. Nickels


Entered on this Website January 2008


How true indeed it is that God has used people down through the
centuries, revealed this truth to them, to some more to some
less, but as the last days have come closer and closer to the end
of this age, the RESTORATION of truth has multiplied. God is
also true that the Church of Christ, the body of Christ, remains
the "salt of the earth" - a remnant - a very little flock.

Through the work of Rupert independant churches in South America
believed in observing the Festivals of God. They withdrew from
the Seventh Day Adventist Conference, and years later - in the
middle 1960s -  Dr.Charles Dorothy, from the Wordwide Church of
God, found them holding to the faith. I have written about all
that in studies of "Little Know History in the WCG."

It is truly a JOY to learn how God has worked with His chosen
ones, even 100 years ago and more.

May YOU, may I, may  WE, as scattered people around this world,
continue in God's work. May we be open to learning, to being
taught, to be growing in grace and knowledge. The worldwide
INTERNET is a wonderful tool, a modern space age tool, to reach
so many around the world. I feel truly blessed that God has
allowed me to have this Website, to teach, to feed, to edify, to
guide all of you that use this Website to learn from, to mature
spiritually from, to grow in grace and knowledge. May you all
continue to love the truth, to hunger and thirst after
righteousness. May we all continue to praise our God and our
Savior Christ Jesus, as they lovingly teach and correct us and
help us on our way to more spiritual maturity.

We may be a REMNANT brethren, we may not know each other in a
collective way, as we are here and we are there, but the Holy One
KNOWS YOU, and I know (from the stats my server gives me) that
anywhere from 500 to 2,500 of you are on this Website EACH and
EVERY day!

May God BLESS and GUIDE you all.

Your humble servant Keith

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